Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2022
|Significant Accounting Policies|
|Significant Accounting Policies||
2. Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The Company’s consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“GAAP”). The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated during the consolidation process. The Company manages its operations as a single segment for the purposes of assessing performance and making operating decisions.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of expenses during the reporting period. The most significant estimates in the Company’s consolidated financial statements relate to the valuation of stock-based compensation, the valuation of licenses, the fair value of warrant liabilities and the valuation allowance of deferred tax assets resulting from net operating losses. These estimates and assumptions are based on current facts, historical experience and various other factors believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities and the recording of expenses that are not readily apparent from other sources. The Company assesses and updates estimates each period to reflect current information, such as the economic considerations related to the impact that the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) could have on our significant accounting estimates. Actual results may differ materially and adversely from these estimates. To the extent there are material differences between the estimates and actual results, the Company’s future results of operations will be affected.
Concentration of Credit Risk
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to credit risk consist principally of cash and cash equivalents. Cash and cash equivalents are maintained in accounts with financial institutions which at times may exceed the Federal depository insurance coverage of $250,000. The Company has not experienced losses on these accounts and management believes, based upon the quality of the financial institutions, that the credit risk with regard to these deposits is not significant.
Fair Value Measurements
Fair value measurements are based on the premise that fair value is an exit price representing the amount that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants. As such, fair value is a market-based measurement that should be determined based on assumptions that market participants would use in pricing an asset or liability. As a
basis for considering such assumptions, the following three-tier fair value hierarchy has been used in determining the inputs used in measuring fair value:
Level 1- Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities on the reporting date.
Level 2- Pricing inputs are based on quoted prices for similar instruments in active markets, quoted prices for identical or similar instruments in markets that are not active and model-based valuation techniques for which all significant assumptions are observable in the market or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities.
Level 3- Pricing inputs are generally unobservable and include situations where there is little, if any, market activity for the investment. The inputs into the determination of fair value require management’s judgment or estimation of assumptions that market participants would use in pricing the assets or liabilities. The fair values are therefore determined using factors that involve considerable judgment and interpretations, including but not limited to private and public comparables, third-party appraisals, discounted cash flow models and fund manager estimates.
Financial instruments measured at fair value are classified in their entirety based on the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement. Management’s assessment of the significance of a particular input to the fair value measurement in its entirety requires judgment and considers factors specific to the asset or liability. The use of different assumptions and/or estimation methodologies may have a material effect on estimated fair values. Accordingly, the fair value estimates disclosed or initial amounts recorded may not be indicative of the amount that the Company or holders of the instruments could realize in a current market exchange.
Marketable securities are classified as trading and are carried at fair value. The Company’s marketable securities consist of corporate bonds and highly liquid mutual funds, and exchange-traded and closed-end funds which are valued at quoted market prices. The Company had no marketable securities as of September 30, 2022 and 2021.
Equipment is stated at cost less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is provided on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the assets. The Company estimates useful lives as follows:
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
The Company reviews the carrying value of long-lived assets for indicators of possible impairment whenever events and circumstances indicate that the carrying value of an asset or asset group may not be recoverable from the estimated future net undiscounted cash flows expected to result from its use and eventual disposition. In cases where estimated future net undiscounted cash flows are less than the carrying value, an impairment loss is recognized equal to an amount by which the carrying value exceeds the fair value of the asset or asset group. The factors that would be considered by management in performing this assessment include current operating results, trends and prospects, the manner in which the property is used and the effects of obsolescence, demand, competition and other economic factors. Based on this assessment, there was no impairment at September 30, 2022 and 2021.
The Company’s investment consists of common and preferred shares of DepYmed, Inc.
Investments that the Company has the ability to exercise significant influence over are accounted for as equity method investments. Equity method investments are recorded at cost plus the proportional share of the issuer’s income or loss.
Investments that do not have a readily determinable fair value and qualify for the measurement alternative for equity investments provided in ASC 321 are accounted for at cost, less any impairment, plus or minus changes resulting from observable price changes in orderly transactions for an identical or similar investment of the same issuer.
The Company determines if an arrangement is a lease at inception. Operating leases are included in operating right-of-use (“ROU”) assets and operating lease liabilities on the consolidated balance sheets. Equipment finance leases are included in equipment, net and finance lease liabilities on the consolidated balance sheets.
Lease ROU assets and lease liabilities are initially recognized based on the present value of the future minimum lease payments over the lease term at commencement date calculated using the Company’s incremental borrowing rate applicable to the lease asset, unless the implicit rate is readily determinable. ROU assets also include any lease payments made at or before lease commencement and exclude any lease incentives received. The Company’s lease terms may include options to extend or terminate the lease when it is reasonably certain that the Company will exercise that option. For operating leases, lease expense for minimum lease payments is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. For finance leases, interest on the lease liability and the amortization of the right-of-use asset results in front-loaded expense over the lease term. The Company accounts for lease and non-lease components as a single lease component for all its leases.
The Company does not recognize ROU assets and lease liabilities that arise from leases with an original term of 12 months or less. Rather, the Company recognizes the lease expense on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease.
Research and Development
The Company expenses research and development costs as operating expenses as incurred. Research and development expenses consist primarily of:
Research and Development Expense- Licenses Acquired
The Company evaluates whether acquired intangible assets are a business under applicable accounting standards. Additionally, the Company evaluates whether the acquired assets have an alternative future use. Intangible assets that do not have alternative future use are considered acquired in-process research and development. When the acquired in-process research and development assets are not part of a business combination, the value of the consideration paid is expensed on the acquisition date. Future costs to develop these assets are recorded to research and development expense as they are incurred.
The Company expenses stock-based compensation to employees, non-employees and board members over the requisite service period based on the estimated grant date fair value of the awards and actual forfeitures. The Company accounts for forfeitures as they occur. Stock-based awards with graded vesting schedules are recognized on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period for each separately vesting portion of the award.
The Company estimates the fair value of stock option grants using the Black-Scholes option pricing model, and the assumptions used in calculating the fair value of stock-based awards represent management’s best estimates and involve inherent uncertainties and the application of management’s judgment including:
Income taxes are accounted for under the asset and liability method. Deferred income taxes are recorded for temporary differences between financial statement carrying amounts and the tax basis of assets and liabilities. Deferred tax assets and liabilities reflect the tax rates expected to be in effect for the years in which the differences are expected to reverse. A valuation allowance is provided if it is more likely than not that some or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized.
The Company also follows the provisions of accounting for uncertainty in income taxes which prescribes a model for the recognition and measurement of a tax position taken or expected to be taken in a tax return and provides guidance on derecognition, classification, interest and penalties, disclosure and transition. In accordance with this guidance, tax positions must meet a more likely than not recognition threshold and measurement attribute for the financial statement recognition and measurement of tax position.
The Company’s policy is to account for income tax-related interest and penalties in income tax expense in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations.
Net Loss Per Share
Basic net loss per share is computed by dividing net loss applicable to common stockholders by the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding during each period. Diluted net loss per share includes the dilutive effect, if any, from the potential exercise or conversion of securities, such as convertible debt, warrants and stock options that would result in the issuance of incremental shares of common stock. In computing the basic and diluted net loss per share applicable to common stockholders, the weighted-average number of shares remains the same for both calculations due to the fact that when a net loss exists dilutive shares are not included in the calculation as the impact is anti-dilutive.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In December 2019, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued ASU No. 2019-12, “Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes” (“ASU 2019-12”), which is intended to simplify various aspects related to accounting
for income taxes. ASU 2019-12 removes certain exceptions to the general principles in Topic 740 and also clarifies and amends existing guidance to improve consistent application. The adoption of this standard as of October 1, 2021, did not impact the Company's consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In November 2021, the FASB issued ASU No. 2021-10, "Government Assistance (Topic 832): Disclosures by Business Entities about Government Assistance", which amends disclosures to increase transparency of government assistance, including (i) the types of assistance, (ii) accounting for the assistance and (iii) the effect of the assistance on an entity's financial statements. The standard is effective for all business entities for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2021. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of this standard on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In June 2022, the FASB issued ASU 2022-03, "ASC Subtopic 820 Fair Value Measurement of Equity Securities Subject to Contractual Sale Restrictions" ("ASU 2022-03"). ASU 2022-03 amends ASC 820 to clarify that a contractual sales restriction is not considered in measuring an equity security at fair value and to introduce new disclosure requirements for equity securities subject to contractual sale restrictions that are measured at fair value. ASU 2022-03 applies to both holders and issuers of equity and equity-linked securities measured at fair value. The amendments in this ASU are effective for the Company in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2023, and interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted for both interim and annual financial statements that have not yet been issued or made available for issuance. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of this pronouncement on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, “Financial Instruments- Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments” (“ASU 2016-13”). This guidance introduces a new model for recognizing credit losses on financial instruments based on an estimate of current expected credit losses. ASU 2016-13 also provides updated guidance regarding the impairment of available-for-sale debt securities and includes additional disclosure requirements. The new guidance is effective for public business entities that meet the definition of a Smaller Reporting Company as defined by the Securities and Exchange Commission for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2022. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of this standard on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In May 2021, the FASB issued ASU No. 2021-04, “Earnings Per Share (Topic 260), Debt-Modifications and Extinguishments (Subtopic 470-50), Compensation-Stock Compensation (Topic 718), and Derivatives and Hedging-Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40)” (“ASU 2021-04”). This guidance reduces diversity in an issuer’s accounting for modifications or exchanges of freestanding equity-classified written call options (for example, warrants) that remain equity classified after modification or exchange. ASU 2021-04 provides guidance for a modification or an exchange of a freestanding equity-classified written call option that is not within the scope of another Topic. It specifically addresses: (1) how an entity should treat a modification of the terms or conditions or an exchange of a freestanding equity-classified written call option that remains equity classified after modification or exchange; (2) how an entity should measure the effect of a modification or an exchange of a freestanding equity-classified written call option that remains equity classified after modification or exchange; and (3) how an entity should recognize the effect of a modification or an exchange of a freestanding equity-classified written call option that remains equity classified after modification or exchange. ASU 2021-04 will be effective for all entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021. An entity should apply the amendments prospectively to modifications or exchanges occurring on or after the effective date of the amendments. Early adoption is permitted, including adoption in an interim period. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of this standard on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/disclosureRef